Howard University Telehealth Training Center

Providing HIV consultation, education and mentoring to healthcare professionals

Current Projects

Past Projects


Knowledge Center

Archive of Resources

Recorded cultural competency videos pertaining to improving HIV/AIDS health care.

Back to eLibary HomeThese materials are 5 year and older, so have been removed from the active Knowledge Center. They are retained on this page for archival purposes.


Telehealth and HIV

Telehealth and Complementary and Alternative Medicine

HIV Health Literacy

Marginalized/Vulnerable Populations


African Americans

American Indians/native

Arab Americans

Asain Americans

Health Literacy

  • Doctor/Patient Communication | Our Stories, Our Health
    This video discusses how many Southeast Asian immigrants are unable to obtain adequate healthcare because of language barriers. They can't effectively communicate with healthcare providers, and are unable to navigate the complicated system
    Source: PubMed 2010



Lesbian, Gay, Transgendered

Men who have Sex with Men

Migrant and Immigrant Communities

  • Impact of culture on healthcare seeking behavior of Asian Indians. This article explores the influence of culture at each of these stages in the context of Asian Indian culture. Although Asian-Indians constitute only 1.5% of the US population they are among the fastest growing minorities in the United States.
    Source: PubMed 2010
  • Improving communication between patients and providers using health information technology and other quality improvement strategies: focus on Asian Americans. Disparities in provider-patient communication have been shown to exist among Asian Americans, especially those who are low-income and have limited English proficiency.
    Source: PubMed 2010
  • Risk perception and beliefs regarding HIV infection among Ethiopian immigrants
    In Ethiopia, approximately 7.5% of the urban population is HIV-positive. Nationally, 1.5 million people are living with HIV. Between 1990 and 2000, immigration into the United States by African-born immigrants increased by 130%.  Individuals from Ethiopia comprise a significant portion of this immigrant population. Although there is a rich literature addressing the beliefs regarding HIV and risk perception among some immigrant populations in the United States, few studies target Ethiopian-born residents. Thus, a survey-based study addressing demographics, acculturation, awareness, beliefs and risk perception, attitudes toward susceptibility for infection, and risk behaviors targeted Ethiopian-born residents of San Diego, California.
    Source: October 2009
  • Healthcare experiences of limited english-proficient asian american patients: a cross-sectional mail survey. This survey evaluated the degree of health education and the quality of interpersonal care that occurs during patient visits, and their associations with patient satisfaction, in LEP Asian American patients.
    Source: PubMed 2009
  • Access to regular HIV care and disease progression among black African immigrants
    The objective of this study wass to describe the characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected black African immigrants living in King County,Washington. Authors evaluated delay in HIV diagnosis, access to HIV care, and risk of progression to AIDS or death. Once having initiated HIV care, African-born blacks accessed HIV care and progressed to AIDS at similar rates compared to U.S.-born individuals. However, African-born blacks initiated care with more advanced HIV disease. Results underscore the need for health interventions promoting HIV testing among black African immigrants and reducing barriers to HIV testing.
    Source: December 2009
  • LGBT Immigrant and Immigrant Living with HIV
    The report presents results of a survey of LGBT immigrants and immigrants living with HIV. The survey assessed experiences with health care refusal and other barriers to health care access.
    Source: PubMed 2009
  • HIV screening and care for immigration detainees.
    The detention of immigrants in the United States is a rapidly expanding endeavor with serious health consequences for the detainees. This detainee population represents non-criminal immigrants who are detained because of a visa violation or other immigration issue but who are not charged with any crime and do not enter the criminal justice system. HIV-positive detainees are especially vulnerable to lapses in proper medical care. Press reports have highlighted deaths and adverse medical outcomes among HIV-positive detainees.
    Source: PubMed 2009
  • Health Programs for Immigrants
    Overview of the African Services project and its methods of providing culturally appropriate care to African Immigrants Source: African Services Committee, New York 2009

Multimedia:  Videos to View

  • Aging with HIV 2009
    This video talks about a relatively new generation: individuals over 50 living with HIV. But they're also an understudied population. Doctors say that unlike younger people with HIV, older individuals may have disclosure concerns and issues in terms of end of life care
  • A lifelong battle: Teens living with HIV/AIDS 2009
    This video addresses pPeople who are born HIV-positive often face a lifetime of medication and stigma. While improved treatment methods have decreased transmission from mother to child, doctors still say caring for children with the virus is an imperfect science

Muslim Americans

Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islander

Over 50

  • Growing older with the epidemic: HI V and aging
    This paper details what we know about HIV among older adults, what we do not yet understand, and what improvements can be made to better prepare the country to care for this population.
    Source: Pubmed 2010


  • Racial/Ethnic Disparities among Children with Diagnoses of Perinatal HIV Infection---34 States, 2004-2007
    This report characterizes the most recent trends in diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection by race andethnicity, using national HIV surveillance data for the period 2004-2007 from 34 states.
    Source: PubMed 2010
  • Children and AIDS, Fifth Stocktaking report 2010
    Advocacy and investment on behalf of children affected by AIDS have had an impact, and the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV appears within reach. But for every problem solved or advance made, new challenges and constraints have arisen. This Children and AIDS: Fifth Stocktaking Report examines current data, trends and the progress that has been made. It discusses disparities in access, coverage and outcomes  and recommends actions to benefit the millions of children, women and families worldwide who bear the burden of the epidemic.
    Source: PubMed 2010

Physically Challenged

  • What do deaf high school students know about HIV?
    Deaf adolescents who use American Sign Language (ASL) as their main communication mode are, like their hearing age peers, at risk for acquiring HIV. Many sources of HIV information (radio and television) are not accessible to these adolescents. The authors discuss this population’s need for school-based linguistically and culturally accessible HIV prevention education.
    Source: PubMed December 2010
  • Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon
    This quantitative cross-sectional study examines sexual behaviour of a target group of hearing-impaired persons in Yaounde, the capital city of the Republic of Cameroon. It measures their HIV prevalence to enable assessment of their sexual vulnerability and to help reduce the gap in existing HIV serology data among people with disabilities in general and the deaf in particular.
    Source: PubMed February 2010
  • Access to Medical Care for Individuals with Mobility Disability, U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ADA Act 2010
    Accessibility of doctors’ offices, clinics, and other health care providers is essential to providing medical care to people with disabilities. Due to barriers individuals with disabilities are less likely to get routine preventive medical care than people without disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act defines requirements for accessible medical facilities. This technical assistance publication provides guidance on meeting those requirements.
    Source: PubMed 2010
  • Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding HIV/AIDS Among Disabled Youth in Maputo (Mozambique)].
    This study deals with knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS amongst disabled youth (motor disabilities, visually or hearing impaired) aged 15 to 29 years in Maputo (Mozambique) where the prevalence rate of HIV is 20.7%. The study analyzed reasons for these differences and showed that there is a need to improve access to HIV/AIDS information, counseling and screening for young people with disabilities. A series of recommendations have been proposed based on our results. Source: PubMed 2010
  • Managing mentally and physically challenged HIV patients
    Management of mentally and physically challenged patients is complex, as it can involve ethical, social, and medical issues.Adding the provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care further complicates management. There continues to be limited information in the literature on caring for these types of patients. The authors presenttwo unique HIV cases--one who is mentally challenged and the other who is blind--and how management was approached. A list of select resources to aid both providers and patients is provided.
    Source: PubMed December 2009
  • The Fields of HIV and Disability: Past, Present and Future
    This article provides an historic overview of the field of disability and HIV.
    Source: PubMed November 2009
  • Disability and AIDS Policy Brief
    The relationship between HIV and disability has not received due attention, although persons with disabilities are found among all key populations at higher risk of
    exposure to HIV. In addition, people living with HIV may develop impairments as the disease
    progresses, and may be considered to have a disability when social, economic,
    political or other barriers hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.
    Source: PubMed April 2009
  • Barriers to Health Care for People with Hearing Loss: A Review of the Literature. 
    This paper aims to make health professionals more aware of the needs and cultural differences that must be considered when providing care to the Deaf population. Source: PubMed 2009
  • Managing Mentally and Physically Challenged HIV Patients.
    The management of mentally and physically challenged patients is complex, as it can involve ethical, social, and medical issues, and adding the provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care further complicates patient management. Source: PubMed 2009
  • The Relation between Deaf Patients and the Doctor.
    This study discusses that non-verbal communication is important when caring for deaf patients, fostering excellence in health care. When deaf patients and physicians meet, they need to overcome communication barriers that may hinder the necessary bond in healthcare and the care that is provided; this may also affect the diagnosis and treatment. It is clear that public institutions should create programs for training healthcare professionals in the appropriate care of deaf patients.Source: PubMed 2009
  • The Deaf and Hard of Hearing and HIV /AIDS
    This article discusses how adults with hearing loss have poorer health and increased risk of engaging in health risk behaviors than adults with good hearing. For example, the rate of substance use disorder among deaf or hard of hearing is higher than among the general population. Substance use, in turn, is linked to higher risk for HIV infection.  The article discusses HRSA response in developing specific strategies to address the service needs of hearing impaired individuals who are at risk of  acquiring HIV/AIDS.Source: HRSA 2008
  • Position Statement on Health Care Access for Deaf Patients
    This paper discusses that healthcare is routinely inaccessible to deaf people due to communication and linguistic barriers. The evidence is compelling that deaf individuals have insufficient access to health care. This results primarily from communication barriers in the health care system. Access in the form of effective communication must be created and consistently provided to create an optimal health care system.  Providers should identify and document the needs of their patients and provide a range of effective communication options to ensure that quality services are delivered.  At the very minimum, existing federal laws under Section 504 and the ADA require health care providers to ensure that such effective communication is achieved. Source: NAD 2008

Racial ethnic minorities


  • Building community-based participatory research partnerships with a Somali refugee community
    This study examined Somali immigrant women's experiences with the U.S. healthcare system, exploring how attitudes, perceptions, and cultural values, influence their use of reproductive health care. The authors report that Somali women tend to under-utilize health care. Cultural beliefs, communication barriers and low health literacy may lead to health disparities in the U.S. health system.  Authors successfully used a community-based approach to eliciting community input to address these issues.
    PubMed Dec 2009
  • Partnering with community agencies to provide nursing students with cultural awareness experiences and refugee health promotion access
    Refugees' cultural beliefs, communication barriers, and low health literacy may lead to health disparities. This article describes a teaching-learning strategy emphasizing the community partnership between a baccalaureate school of nursing, an immigrant-refugee program, and a community literacy program in a rural state. Senior community health nursing students partnered with an immigrant-refugee program and a community literacy program to provide health promotion and prevention services to recently immigrated Hmong and Russian refugees. The group identified refugees’ priority health needs. Based on the needs assessment, nursing students designed and implemented culturally appropriate health promotion and prevention education modules. Students collaborated with community agencies and businesses to increase access to health resources for these vulnerable populations. Students increased their cultural awareness and refugees increased their understanding of U.S. health care, and experienced increased care access.
    PubMed Sept 2009
  • Physicians' attitude towards treating refugee patients
    The refugee patient's complex problems represent a challenge for primary and secondary health care. Language problems and cultural differences may cause difficulties in understanding symptoms and ailments. The authors conducted this study to assess how physicians relate to and perceive their competence for treating this patient group. The study sample was Norwegian physicians, who answered survey questions to self-report on issues related to cultural competence and challenges in providing care. Large percentages of respondents reported difficulties in getting expert advice and with referring patients to psychiatric care when it was needed.
    PubMed Aug 2009
  • HIV Infection in Refugees: A Case-control Analysis of Refugees in Rhode Island.
    The number of HIV-infected refugees entering the USA is increasing. There is little data describing the HIV-infected refugee population and the challenges encountered when caring for them. This article discusses clinicians caring for West African HIV-infected refugees should be knowledgeable about likely co-morbidities and the impact of cultural differences on HIV care. Further studies are needed to develop culturally competent HIV treatment, education, and prevention programs for refugees who are beginning a new life in the USA. Source: PubMed March 2009

Substance Abuse


  • Late diagnosis of HIV infection contributes to poor medical outcomes and helps sustain continued transmission of virus. Published evidence suggests that despite current public health recommendations, patients receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system are not being routinely tested for HIV infection. 2010
  • Understanding the Military: The Institution, the Culture, and the People. This preliminary report contains information for behavioral health specialists working with veterans and service members. It provides civilians, specifically behavioral healthcare specialists working with military personnel, with a basic understanding of the unique life and culture that is the military.
    Source SAMHSA 2010.  
  • Primary Care of Veterans with HIV – Manual. 2009
  • The State of Care for Veterans with HIV/AIDS
    The purpose of this report is to characterize the US Department of Veterans Affairs’ (VA) Veterans Health Administration (VHA) state of care for its population of Veterans in care for HIV disease. The first step in providing responsive care is to learn about the affected population. This State of Care report describes the distribution of Veterans with HIV/AIDS within VHA and provides basic demographic data on this population. Additionally, the report describes pharmacologic treatment, other conditions commonly seen with HIV, monitoring, screening, and vaccinations. This report is intended to provide data which can be used to assess and guide intervention to improve the quality of care VHA delivers to Veterans with HIV/AIDs. 2009
  • A system-wide intervention to improve HIV testing in the Veterans Health Administration
    Although the benefits of identifying and treating asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals are firmly established, health care providers often miss opportunities to offer HIV-testing.The objective of this study is to evaluate whether a multi-component intervention increases the rate of HIV diagnostic testing.


Providers and Provider Stigma


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Howard University College of Medicine AIDS Education and Training Center - National Multicultural Center